What is D-Aspartic Acid (DAA)?
Aspartic acid exists in two forms: l-aspartic acid and d-aspartic acid. They are enantiomers, meaning their
molecular formulas are mirror images that are not superimposable. The body incorporates l-aspartic acid into
proteins. L-Aspartic acid also participates in the urea cycle to eliminate toxic ammonia buildup. D-Aspartic
acid plays a role in increasing the release of testosterone-producing hormones, increasing testosterone
production, and boosting the release of testosterone into the testes.
Potential D-Aspartic Acid Benefits
Potential D-Aspartic Acid Benefits for Testosterone
D-Aspartic acid acts as a signaling molecule in the neuroendocrine systems in the pituitary gland and the
hypothalamus. DAA’s primary function revolves around regulating, releasing, or synthesizing numerous sex
hormones. Its actions stimulate the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, growth hormone, luteinizing
hormone, and prolactin.
It also upregulates the messenger RNA (mRNA) involved in producing Stimulating steroidogenic Acute Regulatory
Protein (StAR) compounds. StAR controls the production of sex hormones in Leydig cells—the primary source of
testosterone in men. One study found that participants taking DAA supplements experienced a 15% increase in
testosterone at six days and a 42% increase after 12 days. Another study reported similar findings, with
infertile men experiencing a 30-60% testosterone increase after three months.
D-Aspartic Acid and Fertility
D-Aspartic acid stimulates the release of several hormones involved in fertility, such as
gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone directly affects the levels of sex hormones,
libido, and fertility. It causes the pituitary gland to produce luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating
hormone. In men, luteinizing hormone promotes testosterone synthesis and triggers the production and
maturation of sperm in the testes. In women, gonadotropin-releasing hormone prompts the ovaries to
synthesize estrogen and progesterone, which are necessary for eggs to mature and for eventual ovulation.
D-Aspartic acid may support fertility due to its influence on developing and releasing mature sperm and
D-Aspartic Acid and Cognition
DAA may support cognition and improve memory. It is a neurotransmitter involved in forming new neurons in the
brain and learning. Animal studies show that DAA improves synaptic plasticity and cognition. One study noted
that animals given DAA supplements had enhanced cognitive capabilities due to DAA’s role in modulating
memory and learning. DAA may further enhance cognition by upregulating NMDA receptors—one of two glutamate
receptors involved in learning and new memory formation.
Potential D-Aspartic Acid Side Effects
A 90-day study failed to find any d-aspartic acid side effects. That same study performed in-depth blood
tests to measure creatinine, electrolytes, glucose, liver enzymes, urea, and both red and white blood cell
function. The researchers found no anomalies. Some individuals are sensitive to amino acids and may
experience mild stomach discomfort when taking d-aspartic acid supplements.
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