Betaine Anhydrous (TMG) vs. Betaine Hydrochloride
PureBulk sells Betaine Anhydrous and Betaine HCl. While both forms are effective for lowering high homocysteine levels, betaine hydrochloride (HCl) acts as a digestive aid and supplemental source of hydrochloric acid for people who have a deficiency in stomach acid production. The anhydrous form does not include this benefit. The HCl form also has an extremely sour taste, while betaine anhydrous has a mild, pleasant taste.
What is Betaine Anhydrous (TMG)?
The term betaine encompasses a class of compounds. The anhydrous form was the first betaine compound scientists discovered in the 19th century. They isolated betaine from sugar beets and named the compound after the vegetable. It is also found in a variety of plant and animal sources. The best dietary sources of betaine anhydrous include green leafy vegetables, cereal grains, seafood, legumes, wine, and sugar beets.
Betaine anhydrous, also called trimethylglycine (TMG), is an amino acid derivative that the body can synthesize from choline oxidation. Betaine consists of a glycine amino acid and three attached methyl groups. Betaine anhydrous is a critical cofactor for the methylation process. It carries and donates methyl molecules to facilitate several bodily processes, such as lowering homocysteine levels, synthesizing neurotransmitters, and melatonin biosynthesis. It also acts as an osmolyte and helps water-stressed cells maintain integrity and volume.
Other Names for Betaine Anhydrous
Betaine anhydrous has many names and designations. These include:
Trimethylglycine (TMG), Methanaminium1-carboxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-, inner salt, 2-(Trimethylammonio) ethanoic acid hydroxide, inner salt, (Carboxymethyl) trimethylammonium hydroxide inner salt, Trimethylammonioacetate, Glycine Betaine, Trimethylbetaine, Trimethylglycocoll, Abromine, Glycylbetaine, Oxyneurine.
Potential Betaine Anhydrous Benefits
Lowers Homocysteine Levels
Homocysteine is an amino acid that the body produces during the demethylation of methionine. It occurs naturally in the body; however, it is a marker and risk factor for heart conditions when present at high levels. Betaine anhydrous helps reduce homocysteine levels by donating a methyl group to convert it back into methionine. The body can also use betaine anhydrous to produce folate, which provides a second pathway to convert homocysteine back into methionine. Studies have shown that betaine can lower homocysteine in individuals with various health conditions as well as healthy individuals.
Betaine for Exercise Performance
Betaine anhydrous may enhance exercise performance by improving cellular hydration. As an osmolyte, betaine increases cellular swelling, which protects cells against exercise-induced stressors and damage. A study examining the effects of TMG supplements on resistance training noted that participants taking TMG supplements experience increased exercise capacity and muscle cell metabolism. TMG supplements may promote muscle growth, as they play a role in creatine synthesis. Performance athletes who engage in serious strength training, especially creatine non-responders, may find it beneficial to take TMG with Creatine Monohydrate, for muscle mass gains.
TMG Supplements and Mood
TMG supplements may help improve mood by boosting S-adenosyl-methionine (SAMe) levels. SAMe helps elevate moods, and it performs even better when taken with TMG supplements. Several studies have linked excess homocysteine levels with feelings of unease and nervousness. TMG supplements may help alleviate these symptoms by lowering homocysteine levels.
Potential Betaine Anhydrous (TMG) Side Effects
Possible adverse side effects of TMG can include diarrhea, stomach upset, and nausea. This product is not recommended for diabetics and pregnant or nursing women without medical consultation. High doses of TMG supplements in excess of 4g per day may raise LDL cholesterol.
Purity and Concentration of Betaine Anhydrous (TMG)
This food-grade betaine anhydrous (TMG) contains no fillers, additives, or anti-caking agents.
Bioavailability, Mixing, and Solubility of Betaine Anhydrous (TMG)
This food-grade betaine anhydrous powder has a mildly tart and sweet umami flavor but mixes and dissolves readily with hot water. Please note that there is a significant difference in taste between the mild betaine anhydrous and Betaine HCL, which is quite sour.
References & Further Research
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