Riboflavin 5’-Phosphate, also known as flavin mononucleotide (FMN), is the natural form of vitamin B2 found
in cells throughout the body. Riboflavin 5’-phosphate requires more energy to produce, but it has much
greater solubility. FMN enzymes are essential for normal growth, development, and bodily function. FMN
enzymes work with flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) enzymes—also derived from riboflavin—to facilitate
nutrient metabolism, energy metabolism, and cell respiration.
FMN and FAD also play a role in 80 flavoenzyme functions. One of the more notable is their role in redox
reactions. Antioxidants depend on redox reactions to maintain their levels, particularly the glutathione
redox cycle. Redox reactions also help produce cellular energy by generating adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism require redox reactions, too.
FAD is essential for converting oxidized glutathione into reduced glutathione.
Vitamin B2 Foods
Individuals must obtain vitamin b2 through dietary sources, such as supplements or food. The following are
several vitamin b2 food sources:
- Beef liver
- Chicken liver
- Whey protein
- Whole milk
Foods with higher vitamin B2 content are often animal-based. While vegetarians and vegans have several
options for obtaining vitamin b2 from food, plant-based vitamin b2 foods don’t contain as much B2 as animal
food sources. Riboflavin 5’-phosphate supplements can help meet individuals’ daily dietary needs for vitamin
Potential Riboflavin Benefits
Riboflavin + the Immune System
Riboflavin supports the function of numerous types of white blood cells. Riboflavin activates the immune
system’s neutrophils and macrophages to defend against invasive pathogens. Riboflavin stimulates the
production of phagocytes, including neutrophils and monocytes. These phagocytes protect the body by
containing and then consuming pathogens.
Riboflavin + Antioxidants
Oxidative stress occurs when reactive oxygen species (ROS), also known as free radicals, outnumber
antioxidants. Riboflavin reduces the likelihood of oxidative damage by scavenging free radicals and boosting
the levels of glutathione antioxidants. Vitamin B2 also contributes to redox reactions, which are essential
to convert oxidized antioxidants into their reduced form. Antioxidants like glutathione sacrifice themselves
to prevent the formation of free radicals by donating electrons. However, they remain relatively stable,
unlike other oxidized compounds. Even so, they rely on redox reactions to regain their lost electrons to
continue exerting antioxidant effects.
Vitamin B2 + Migraines
The cause of migraine remains a mystery, but research has identified some commonalities amongst individuals
who suffer from this kind of headache. Mitochondrial function is often suboptimal in these individuals, and
their mitochondria struggle to metabolize and produce energy. Researchers hypothesize that vitamin B2 may
reduce migraine frequency, as the body relies on riboflavin to produce mitochondrial energy. Several studies
support this theory, and one clinical trial found that riboflavin supplements reduce migraine frequency by
more than 50%.
Vitamin B2 Deficiency Symptoms
Vitamin B2 deficiencies aren’t common. However, research shows that even healthy individuals often have less
vitamin B2 than they need. Some individuals have an increased risk of developing a vitamin B2 deficiency.
Individuals eating a vegan diet may need to take vitamin B2 supplements to meet their nutritional needs.
Individuals with lactose intolerance, adrenal insufficiency, hypothyroidism, or alcohol dependency may also
have deficient vitamin B2 levels. Individuals with physically taxing jobs typically have an increased demand
for riboflavin, such as laborers and professional athletes.
Potential Riboflavin Side Effects
Riboflavin supplements do not typically cause side effects, as riboflavin is an essential vitamin for life. B
vitamins are also water-soluble, so individuals usually excrete any excess through the urine. Consuming
large vitamin B2 doses may cause bright yellow urine or diarrhea.
Tested by Accredited 3rd Party Labs
PureBulk's supplements are tested by accredited third party labs in the USA to ensure their identity, purity
and potency. To receive a copy of these test results or any other PureBulk supplement please fill out the COA request form found here.